(/bəˈvɛəriə/; German: Freistaat Bayern [ˈfʁaɪʃtaːt ˈbaɪɐn]; Czech: Bavorsko) is a federal state of Germany. Located in the German southeast with an area of 70,548 square kilometres (27,200 sq mi), Bavaria is the largest German state.
Its territory comprises roughly a fifth of the total land area of Germany, and, with 12.9 million inhabitants, it is Germany’s second most populous state. Munich, Bavaria’s capital and largest city, is the third largest city in Germany. The history of Bavaria stretches from its earliest settlement and formation as a duchy in the 6th century CE (AD) through the Holy Roman Empireto becoming an independent kingdom and finally a state of the Federal Republic of Germany.